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Effects of disease-causing mutations on the conformation of human apolipoprotein A-I in model lipoproteins.
Wilson CJ, Das M, Jayaraman S, Gursky O, Engen JR.
Biochemistry. 2018. In press. DOI:

Plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) are protein-lipid nanoparticles that transport lipids and protect against atherosclerosis. Human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the principal HDL protein whose mutations can cause either aberrant lipid metabolism or amyloid disease. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry (MS) was used to study the apoA-I conformation in model discoidal lipoproteins similar in size to large plasma HDL. We examined how point mutations associated with hereditary amyloidosis (F71Y, L170P) or atherosclerosis (L159R) influence local apoA-I conformation in model lipoproteins. Unlike other apoA-I forms, the large particles showed minimal conformational heterogeneity, suggesting a fully extended protein conformation. Mutation-induced structural perturbations in lipid-bound protein were attenuated as compared to free protein, and indicated close coupling between the two belt-forming apoA-I molecules. These perturbations propagated to distant lipoprotein sites, either increasing or decreasing their protection. This HDX MS study of large model HDL, compared with previous studies of smaller particles, ascertained that apoA-I’s central region helps accommodate the protein conformation to lipoproteins of various sizes. This study also reveals that the effects of mutations on lipoprotein conformational dynamics are much smaller than those in lipid-free protein. Interestingly, the mutation-induced perturbations propagate to distant sites nearly 10 nm away and alter their protection in ways that cannot be predicted from the lipoprotein structure and stability. Long-range mutational effects are mediated by both protein and lipid and can influence lipoprotein functionality.
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